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About This Guide
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1     Overview of Digital UNIX System Administration
1.1    The Digital UNIX System Administrator
1.2    Starting Up and Shutting Down the System
1.3    Customizing the System Environment
1.4    Configuring the Kernel
1.5    Administering Dynamic Device Recognition
1.6    Administering the UNIX File System
1.7    Administering the Advanced File System
1.8    Administering the Logical Storage Manager
1.9    Administering User Accounts and Groups
1.10    Administering the Print Services
1.11    Administering the Archiving Services
1.12    Administering System Accounting Services
1.13    Administering Events and Errors
1.14    Appendixes
1.14.1    Device Mnemonics
1.14.2    SCSI/CAM Utility Program
1.14.3    CI and HSC Hardware
1.14.4    Using the uerf Error Logger
1.14.5    Administering Specific Hardware Devices
 
2     System Administration Tools and Methods
2.1    Scripts and Files
2.2    CDE Graphical User Interface
2.2.1    CDE Administration Tools
2.2.2    Accessing the SysMan Tools
2.3    Remote System Administration
2.3.1    Setting Up a Console Port
2.3.1.1    Connecting the Modem to COMM1
2.3.1.2    Setting the Configurable DCD Timer Value
2.3.1.3    Setting the Console Environment Variables
2.3.1.4    Verifying the Modem Setup
2.3.2    Initiating a Console Port Connection
2.3.2.1    Using the Console Port
2.3.2.1.1    Turning off Console Log Messages
2.3.2.1.2    Shutting Down The Remote System
2.3.2.1.3    Ending a Remote Session
2.3.3    Troubleshooting
 
3     Starting Up and Shutting Down the System
3.1    Understanding the Boot Operation
3.2    Preparing to Boot the Installed System
3.2.1    Preparing to Boot a Powered-Down System
3.2.2    Preparing to Boot a Powered-Up, Halted System
3.2.3    Preparing to Transition from Single-User Mode
3.2.4    Preparing to Boot a Crashed System
3.3    Booting the System
3.3.1    Defining the Console Environment Variables and Using the Boot Commands
3.3.2    Overriding the Boot Commands
3.4    Identifying the System Run Levels
3.5    Changing the System Run Levels
3.5.1    Changing Run Levels from Single-User Mode
3.5.2    Changing Run Levels from Multiuser Mode
3.5.2.1    Changing to a Different Multiuser Run Level
3.5.2.2    Changing to Single-User Mode
3.5.2.3    Reexamining the inittab File
3.6    Symmetric Multiprocessing
3.6.1    Adding CPUs to an Existing System
3.6.2    Unattended Reboots on Multiprocessor Systems
3.7    Setting and Resetting the System Clock
3.8    Resolving Booting Problems
3.9    Shutting Down the System
3.10    Stopping Systems While in Multiuser Mode
3.10.1    Shutting Down the System and Warning Other Users
3.10.2    Shutting Down and Halting the System
3.10.3    Shutting Down and Automatically Rebooting the System
3.10.4    Shutting Down and Halting Systems Immediately
3.11    Stopping Systems While in Single-User Mode
 
4     Customizing the System Environment
4.1    Identifying and Modifying the System Initialization Files
4.1.1    Using the /etc/inittab File
4.1.1.1    Specifying the Initialization Default Run Level
4.1.1.2    Specifying wait Run Levels
4.1.1.3    Specifying bootwait Run Levels
4.1.1.4    Specifying Console Run Levels
4.1.1.5    Specifying Terminals and Terminal Run Levels
4.1.1.6    Specifying Process Run Levels
4.1.1.7    Securing a Terminal Line
4.1.2    Using the init and rc Directory Structure
4.1.2.1    The init.d Directory
4.1.2.2    The rc0.d Directory and rc0 Run Command Script
4.1.2.3    The rc2.d Directory and rc2 Run Command Script
4.1.2.4    The rc3.d Directory and rc3 Run Command Script
4.1.3    Using the crontabs Directory
4.2    Identifying and Managing National Language Support Directories and Files
4.2.1    Setting Locale
4.2.2    Modifying Locale Categories
4.2.3    Limitations of Locale Variables
4.2.4    Setting Environment Variables for Message Catalogs and Locales
4.3    Customizing Internationalization Features
4.4    Customizing Your Time Zone
4.5    Customizing System Security
4.6    Customizing Performance Monitors
4.6.1    Monitoring Performance History Utility
4.6.2    Performance Monitor
4.6.3    Performance Manager
4.6.4    UNIX Commands and Scripts
4.7    Customizing Power Management
4.7.1    Using the dxpower Utility's Graphical User Interface
4.7.2    Implementing Power Management from the Command Line
4.7.2.1    Changing the Power Management Values
4.7.2.2    Changing a Running Kernel or X Server
 
5     Configuring the Kernel
5.1    System Configuration at Installation Time
5.2    Deciding When and How to Reconfigure Your Kernel
5.3    Dynamic System Configuration
5.3.1    Configuring Subsystems
5.3.2    Querying Subsystem State
5.3.3    Determining Subsystem Type
5.3.4    Unloading a Subsystem
5.3.5    Maintaining the List of Automatically Configured Subsystems
5.3.6    Managing Subsystem Attributes
5.3.6.1    Determining the Value of Subsystem Attributes
5.3.6.2    Identifying Dynamic Subsystem Attributes
5.3.6.3    Modifying Dynamic Subsystem Attributes at Run Time
5.3.7    Managing Subsystems and Attributes Remotely
5.3.8    Managing the Subsystem Attributes Database
5.3.8.1    Listing Attributes in the Database
5.3.8.2    Adding Attributes to the Database
5.3.8.3    Merging New Definitions into Existing Database Entries
5.3.8.4    Updating Attributes in the Database
5.3.8.5    Removing Attribute Definitions from the Database
5.3.8.6    Deleting Subsystem Entries from the Database
5.4    Static System Configuration
5.4.1    Building the Kernel to Add Support for a New Device
5.4.2    Building the Kernel to Add Selected Kernel Options
5.4.3    Building a Kernel After Editing System Files
5.5    Static Configuration Files
5.5.1    System Configuration Files
5.5.2    Extensions to the Target Configuration File
5.5.3    The param.c File
5.6    Configuration File Entries
5.6.1    Global Keywords
5.6.1.1    Kernel Identification
5.6.1.2    Time Zone
5.6.1.3    Process Memory Size Limits
5.6.1.4    System V Functionality
5.6.1.5    System V IPC
5.6.1.6    Expected Number of Simultaneous Users
5.6.1.7    Maximum Number of clists
5.6.1.8    Maximum Number of Open Files
5.6.1.9    Maximum Number of Threads
5.6.1.10    Maximum Number of System Threads
5.6.1.11    Maximum Number of Processes
5.6.1.12    Maximum Number of User Processes
5.6.1.13    Maximum Number of Callouts
5.6.1.14    File System Metadata Cache Size
5.6.1.15    Machine Architecture
5.6.1.16    Machine Type
5.6.1.17    System SCS Identifier
5.6.1.18    Virtual Memory
5.6.2    System Definition Keyword
5.6.3    Device Definition Keywords
5.6.4    The callout Keyword Definitions
5.6.5    The options Keyword Definitions
5.6.5.1    Symmetrical Multiprocessing
5.6.5.2    Real-Time Processing
5.6.5.3    Maximum Size of Switch Tables
5.6.5.4    File System Configuration
5.6.5.5    File System Types, File Formats, and Locking
5.6.5.6    Standard Digital UNIX Kernel Features and Dependencies
5.6.5.7    Remote Kernel Debugging
5.6.5.8    Network Time Protocol Daemon
5.6.5.9    Autonice Threads Prioritizing
5.6.5.10    Statistics Functionality
5.6.5.11    Network and Communications Protocols and Dependencies
5.6.5.12    Terminal Subsystem
5.6.6    The makeoptions Keywords
5.6.7    The pseudo-device Keywords
5.6.7.1    Mandatory Definitions
5.6.7.2    Graphics
5.6.7.3    Prestoserve
5.6.7.4    Terminal Service
5.6.7.5    Logical Storage Manager
5.6.7.6    Ethernet ARP
5.6.7.7    Gateway Screen
5.6.7.8    Packetfilter
5.6.7.9    Network Loopback Device
5.6.7.10    Additional STREAMS Definitions
 
6     Administering Devices with Dynamic Device Recognition
6.1    Understanding Dynamic Device Recognition
6.1.1    Conforming to Standards
6.1.2    Understanding DDR Messages
6.1.3    Getting Help with ddr_config Options
6.2    Changing the DDR Database
6.3    Converting Customized cam_data.c Information
6.4    Adding Pseudoterminals and Devices without Using DDR
6.4.1    Adding Pseudoterminals
6.4.2    Adding Disk and Tape Drives
 
7     Administering the UNIX File System
7.1    File Systems and Logical Storage
7.1.1    Disk Partitions
7.1.2    Adding Swap Space
7.1.2.1    How Swap Space is Allocated
7.1.2.2    Estimating Swap Space Requirements
7.1.2.3    Selecting the Swap Space Allocation Method
7.1.3    UNIX File System Structure
7.1.4    File System and Directory Hierarchy
7.1.5    Directories and File Types
7.1.6    Device Special Files
7.2    Creating File Systems
7.3    Checking File Systems
7.4    Accessing File Systems
7.4.1    Using the mount Command
7.4.2    Using the umount Command
7.5    Tuning File Systems
7.6    Maintaining Disks
7.7    Monitoring Disk Use
7.7.1    Checking Available Free Space
7.7.2    Checking Disk Use
7.7.3    Setting User and Group Quotas for UFS
7.7.3.1    Hard and Soft Quota Limits
7.7.3.2    Activating File System Quotas
7.7.4    Verifying Disk Quotas
7.8    Partitioning Disks
7.9    Cloning Disks
7.10    Checking for Overlapping Partitions
 
8     Administering the POLYCENTER Advanced File System
8.1    Features and Benefits
8.2    AdvFS Design Overview
8.2.1    File Domains
8.2.2    Filesets and File Systems
8.3    File Storage Allocation
8.3.1    Allocation Policy
8.3.2    Fragments
8.3.3    Policy Allocation Limitations
8.4    Setting Up the Advanced File System
8.5    Managing File System and Fileset Quotas
8.6    Backing Up Data
8.7    Restoring the fdmns Directory
8.7.1    Restoring from Backup Media
8.7.2    Reconstructing the Directory
8.8    Restarting the System
8.8.1    System Interruption
8.8.2    Media Failure
8.9    Converting the root File System
8.10    Converting the /usr File System from UFS to AdvFS
8.10.1    Using a Backup Tape to Convert the /usr File System from UFS to AdvFS
8.10.2    Using an Intermediate File to Convert from UFS to AdvFS
8.10.3    Converting from One Disk to Another Disk
8.11    Converting a Data File System from UFS to AdvFS
8.11.1    Using a Backup Tape to Convert a Data File System from UFS to AdvFS
8.11.2    Transferring an Existing Data File System and Converting It to AdvFS
 
9     Administering the Logical Storage Manager
9.1    Features and Benefits
9.2    Understanding the LSM Components
9.2.1    LSM Objects
9.2.2    LSM Disks
9.2.3    Naming LSM Disks
9.2.4    LSM Disk Groups
9.2.5    LSM Configuration Databases
9.2.6    Moving and Replacing LSM Disks in a Disk Group
9.3    LSM System Administration
9.4    LSM System Administration Commands
9.4.1    Top-Down Command
9.4.2    Bottom-Up Commands
9.4.3    Information Command
9.5    Planning an LSM Configuration
9.6    Implementing an LSM Configuration
9.6.1    Reenabling LSM
9.6.2    Setting up LSM
9.6.3    Adding a Disk to a Disk Group
9.6.4    Creating a Volume in a Disk Group
9.6.5    Mirroring a Volume
9.6.6    Changing the Size of a Volume
 
10     Administering User Accounts and Groups
10.1    Understanding User Accounts and Groups
10.1.1    The Password File
10.1.2    The Group File
10.1.3    The Administrative Tools
10.2    Adding a User Account
10.2.1    Adding a User Account with the adduser Utility
10.2.2    Adding a User Account Manually
10.2.2.1    Adding a User Account to the passwd File
10.2.2.2    Adding an Entry to the group File
10.2.2.3    Providing the Default Shell Scripts
10.2.2.4    Assigning a Password
10.2.2.5    Verifying the Accuracy of the group and passwd Files
10.3    Changing Information in a User Account
10.3.1    Changing Passwords
10.3.2    Changing the user_info Field
10.3.3    Changing the Login Shell
10.3.4    Setting File System Quotas
10.3.4.1    Understanding User Account and Group Quota Limits
10.3.4.2    Setting File System Quotas for User Accounts
10.4    Removing a User Account
10.4.1    Removing a User Account with the removeuser Utility
10.4.2    Removing a User Account Manually
10.4.3    Removing a User's Files and Directories
10.4.4    Removing a User's Account from the group File
10.4.5    Removing a User's Account from the passwd File
10.5    Adding and Removing Groups
10.5.1    Adding a Group with the addgroup Utility
10.5.2    Adding a Group Manually
10.5.3    Removing a Group
 
11     Administering the Print Services
11.1    Administrative Tasks
11.2    Interfaces to Print Services
11.3    Print Services Commands
11.4    Using lprsetup to Set Up the Print System
11.4.1    Gathering Information
11.4.1.1    Printer Name
11.4.1.2    Printer Type
11.4.1.3    Printer Synonyms
11.4.1.4    Device Special File
11.4.1.5    Printer Accounting
11.4.1.6    Spooler Directory
11.4.1.7    Error Log File
11.4.1.8    Connection Type
11.4.1.9    Baud Rate
11.4.2    Using lprsetup to Install a Printer
11.4.3    Setting Up Remote Printers
11.4.4    Testing Printers
11.5    Routine Operations
11.5.1    Adding Printers
11.5.2    Modifying Printers
11.5.3    Removing Printers
11.5.4    Enabling Printer Accounting
11.5.5    Controlling Local Print Jobs and Queues
11.6    Reference Information
11.6.1    Line Printer Daemon
11.6.2    Spooling Directories
11.6.2.1    Spooling Directory Files
11.6.2.2    Creating a Spooling Directory
11.6.3    The /etc/printcap File
11.6.4    Line Printer Daemon Filter Directory
11.6.5    Flag Bits
11.6.6    Mode Bits
11.6.7    Remote Printer Characteristics
11.6.8    Pagination and Imaging Parameters
11.7    Troubleshooting
11.7.1    Installation and Routine Operations
11.7.2    Printer Error Logging
11.8    TCP/IP (telnet) Printing
11.8.1    Setting up TCP/IP Printing
11.8.2    Using TCP/IP Printing
11.8.3    Known Restrictions on the Use of TCP/IP Printing
 
12     Administering the Archiving Services
12.1    NetWorker SingleServer Save and Restore
12.2    POLYCENTER NetWorker Save and Restore
12.3    Bootable Tape
12.3.1    Using the btcreate Utility
12.3.1.1    Gathering Information
12.3.1.2    Creating the SAS Kernel
12.3.2    Using the btextract Utility
12.4    Backing Up Data
12.4.1    Choosing a Backup Schedule
12.4.2    Performing a Full Backup
12.4.3    Performing an Incremental Backup
12.4.4    Performing a Remote Backup
12.4.5    Using Backup Scripts
12.5    Restoring Data
12.5.1    Restoring a File System
12.5.2    Restoring Files
12.5.3    Restoring Files Interactively
12.5.4    Performing Remote Restores
12.5.5    Restoring the root and /usr File Systems
12.5.5.1    Local Restoration Example
12.5.5.2    Remote Restoration Example
 
13     Administering the System Accounting Services
13.1    Accounting Overview
13.1.1    Accounting Shell Scripts and Commands
13.1.2    Accounting Files
13.2    Setting Up Accounting
13.2.1    Enabling Accounting in the rc.config File
13.2.2    Creating the qacct and pacct Files
13.2.3    Editing the holidays File
13.2.4    Modifying the crontab Files
13.3    Starting Up and Stopping Accounting
13.4    Connect Session Accounting
13.4.1    The wtmpfix Command
13.4.2    The fwtmp Command
13.4.3    The acctwtmp Command
13.4.4    The ac Command
13.4.5    The acctcon1 Command
13.4.6    The acctcon2 Command
13.4.7    The prctmp Shell Script
13.4.8    The lastlogin Shell Script
13.4.9    The last Command
13.5    Process Accounting
13.5.1    The accton Command
13.5.2    The turnacct Shell Script
13.5.3    The ckpacct Shell Script
13.5.4    The acctcom Command
13.5.5    The sa Command
13.5.6    The acctcms Command
13.5.7    The acctprc1 Command
13.5.8    The acctprc2 Command
13.5.9    The lastcomm Command
13.6    Disk Usage Accounting
13.6.1    The dodisk Shell Script
13.6.2    The diskusg Command
13.6.3    The acctdusg Command
13.6.4    The acctdisk Command
13.7    System Administration Service Accounting
13.8    Printer Accounting
13.9    Creating Daily, Summary, and Monthly Report Files
13.9.1    The runacct Shell Script
13.9.1.1    Correcting runacct Shell Script Errors
13.9.1.2    Examples of Errors and Corrective Actions
13.9.2    The acctmerg Command
13.9.3    The prtacct Shell Script
13.9.4    The prdaily Shell Script
13.9.5    The monacct Shell Script
 
14     Administering Events and Errors
14.1    Using the System Exercisers
14.1.1    Running System Exercisers
14.1.2    Using Exerciser Diagnostics
14.1.3    Exercising a File System
14.1.4    Exercising System Memory
14.1.5    Exercising Shared Memory
14.1.6    Exercising a Disk Drive
14.1.7    Exercising a Tape Drive
14.1.8    Exercising the Terminal Communication System
14.2    Understanding the Event-Logging Facilities
14.2.1    System Event Logging
14.2.2    Binary Event Logging
14.3    Configuring Event Logging
14.3.1    Editing the Configuration Files
14.3.1.1    The syslog.conf File
14.3.1.2    The binlog.conf File
14.3.2    Creating the Special Files
14.3.3    Starting and Stopping the Event-Logging Daemons
14.3.3.1    The syslogd Daemon
14.3.3.2    The binlogd Daemon
14.3.4    Configuring the Kernel Binary Event Logger
14.4    Recovering Event Logs After a System Crash
14.5    Maintaining Log Files
14.6    Environmental Monitoring
14.6.1    Environmental Monitoring Framework
14.6.1.1    Loadable Kernel Module
14.6.1.1.1    Specifying Loadable Kernel Attributes
14.6.1.1.2    Obtaining Platform Specific Functions
14.6.1.1.3    Server System MIB Subagent
14.6.1.2    Monitoring Environmental Thresholds
14.6.1.2.1    Environmental Monitoring Daemon
14.6.1.2.2    Customizing the envmond Daemon
 
A     Device Mnemonics
 
B     SCSI/CAM Utility Program
B.1    Introduction
B.2    SCU Utility Conventions
B.3    General SCU Commands
B.4    Device and Bus Management Commands
B.5    Device and Bus Maintenance Commands
 
C     Support of the CI and HSC Hardware
C.1    Hardware Setup, Restrictions, and Revision Levels
C.2    Software Installation and Restrictions
C.3    Configuration File Entries
C.4    Booting an HSC Controller or an HSC Disk
C.5    Sharing Disk and Tape Units Among Several Hosts
 
D     Using the uerf Event Logger
D.1    Specifying the Report Source
D.1.1    Selecting the Event Class
D.1.2    Selecting Disk Events
D.1.3    Selecting Mainframe Events
D.1.4    Selecting Events As They Occur
D.1.5    Selecting Operating System Events
D.1.6    Selecting Tape Events
D.1.7    Generating Reports from Files
D.1.8    Generating Reports for Hosts
D.1.9    Selecting Events by Record Code
D.2    Restricting Events
D.2.1    Specifying Sequence Numbers
D.2.2    Specifying a Time Range
D.2.3    Specifying Unit Numbers
D.2.4    Excluding Reported Events
D.3    Controlling the Report Output
D.3.1    Generating Summary Reports
D.3.2    Specifying the Type of Output
D.3.3    Generating Reports in Reverse Chronological Order
D.3.4    Displaying Hexadecimal Output
 
E     Administering Specific Hardware Devices
E.1    Introduction
E.2    PCMCIA Support
E.2.1    Restrictions
E.2.2    Configuring the PCMCIA Adapter Board from the Console
E.2.2.1    Configuring on an ISA Bus System
E.2.2.2    Configuring on an EISA Bus System
E.2.3    Configuring and Using a PCMCIA Modem PC Card
E.2.4    Creating a Device Special File for the Modem Card
E.2.5    /etc/remote File
E.2.6    Inserting a PCMCIA Modem Card
E.2.7    Removing a PCMCIA Modem Card
E.3    CalComp Graphics Tablet
E.3.1    Configuring the CalComp DrawingBoard III Tablet
E.3.2    Notes and Restrictions
 
Index